Most of the richest countries in the world have strong trading links with other competitor nations, as this is essential for global growth. This involves interaction between currencies, stock markets and commodities that are valuable to both buy and sell. There are stock exchanges in every major region of the world and often multiple exchanges per country. Unsurprisingly, the top five stock exchanges are based in New York, Tokyo, London and Shanghai, all global hubs for the world economy.
Technically, the European Union has the world’s second largest economy, with an overall nominal GDP of $18.7 trillion. However, this is recognised as a political union and not a separate country; for this reason, it is not included in this list.